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From: baer@cs.mcgill.ca (Lawrence BAER)
Newsgroups: comp.graphics
Subject: Re: The closest point. Suggestions.
Message-ID: <1991Feb22.005553.11729@cs.mcgill.ca>
Date: 22 Feb 91 00:55:53 GMT
References: <1991Feb21.181630.3627@magnus.ircc.ohio-state.edu> <12449@helios.TAMU.EDU>
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In article <12449@helios.TAMU.EDU> antek@binoc.tamu.edu (Antek Laczkowski)
gives the following algorithm:
>
> a) Let the current point be "P".
> b) Find the closest point(s) in the meaning of the "Manhatan" distance.
> Note, you may compare x,y,z coordinate differences separately to the
> previous "minimum" to speed up the process.
> c) If there is ONLY ONE "closest" point - it is also the closest in the
> terms of "normal" (i.e. Pitagorean (?)) distance. End.
> If there is MORE points, store them in a list. Go to "d".
> d) For each point from the list (for which you also stored the differences
> in coordinates to "P": (dx,dy,dz) calculate:
> In 2-D space: ABS(dx - dy)
> In 3-D space: ABS(dx - dy) + ABS(dx - dz) + ABS(dy - dz)
> The point(s) for which the above is minimal is the closest one. End.
As a counterexample, suppose we find that in our planar point set S, the only
closest point to the origin using the Manhattan or 1-norm is the point P1=
(0,1). We stop at step (c). Suppose S also contains the point P2=(1/2,3/4).
The 1-norm of P2 is ||P2||_1=5/4 > 1 BUT the 2-norm is ||P2||_2=sqrt(13)/4 < 1.
Thus, P2 is closer than P1 to the origin under the Euclidean norm.
I believe that Keith Blackwell's algorithm (given a few articles previous to
the one cited above):
| 1) For all of the points in the set, compute the manhatan
| distance ( delta x + delta y + delta z).
| 2) Choose the one with the smallest manhatan distance.
| 3) then compute x^2 + y^2 + z^2 for all points whose
| Manhatan distance is within (2^ (1/2)) times the
| smallest Manhatan distance (found in #2).
| 4) choose the smallest from the set in #3.
is correct except for one detail. In 3-D, replace 2^(1/2) with 3^(1/2)
(The example he gave was for 2-D which works fine). The reason for this
is given in Golub and van Loan's Matrix Computations, p.54:
if x is in R^n then
||x||_2 <= ||x||_1 <= sqrt(n) * ||x||_2
or
(1/sqrt(n))*||x||_1 <= ||x||_2 <= ||x||_1
Note that we can do this sort of trick with any norms on R^(n), including
the infinity norm:
||x||_inf <= ||x||_2 <= sqrt(n)||x||_inf
If you wish to attack the closest point problem using these kinds of
algorithms, then the last norm relation may be helpful since the infinity
norm (just the max coord of point x) is so easy to calculate but the
drawback is that in step (3) of Keith Blackwell's algorithm, you may be
left with more points than if you had used the 1-norm.
For an excellent discussion of this problem and efficient solutions to it,
I suggest 'Computational Geometry' by Preparata & Shamos.
Larry Baer